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Chiral compounds and biological catalyst

Posted Date : 21/12/2011  Click : 915

State Key Laboratory of microbial resources, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Sun Wanru
As a precursor, intermediate or final product of the pharmaceutical, pesticide, spice and functional material, chiral compounds play an important role in the production of fine chemical products. Synthesis and resolution of chiral compounds is to use collectively referred to as the biocatalyst enzyme catalyzed reactions or microbial transformation of highly substrate, stereo, position and regioselectivity, the chemical synthesis of the precursor, potential chiral compounds or racemic derivatives into a single optically active products.
Keywords chiral compounds
A large number of facts prove that the chiral is one of the basic properties of life. In the long process of life evolution, chiral evolution is the foundation of biological evolution. Composed of life the important material foundation of nucleotides, amino acids and monosaccharides and formed by their biological macromolecules nucleic acid, protein and carbohydrate is the chirality, this property gives catalytic properties of protein, nucleic acid stores of information and genetic properties, polysaccharide of recognition performance, which laid the foundation of life and evolution.

In the chiral environment of organisms, strict chiral matching between molecules is the basis of molecular recognition. Such as enzyme highly substrate, regional and catalytic sites and stereo specificity, immune recognition of antigen and antibody receptor and to the specific role; the same drugs, pesticides and other bioactive substances chiral the biological response relationship (such as in vivo absorption, transport, tissue distribution, and active site of action, metabolism, and elimination) are likely to have an important influence. If drugs, is directly related to its pharmacological action, clinical effect, toxic and side effects, play therapeutic time and effect of time; if it is a pesticide, related to its efficacy and phytotoxicity, residues. In many pesticides, fungicide, herbicide, insect hormones, information), only specific chiral group only with biological activity; in spices, different chiral group smelling completely different; in functional materials, such as liquid crystal, and the target compound, semiconductor organic material, a conductive organic material and different chiral group divided into its physical properties are completely different and material properties also differs very far.
There are three main types of international use of the technology: chromatography, chemical asymmetric synthesis and resolution method, synthesis and resolution method. Its advantages and disadvantages are shown in Table 1. The first two methods need to use chiral source, such as chiral reagents, chiral ligands, chiral catalysts and chiral solvents. In fact, this is a chiral transfer method. In particular, the use of chiral catalysts in the synthesis of chiral catalysts has heavy metals, so the application in the pharmaceutical industry is limited. The biosynthesis and resolution method not only need not chiral source, but also can be converted into chiral compounds.

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